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The essence of gasification process is the conversion of solid carbon fuels into carbon monoxide by thermo chemical process. The gasification of solid fuel is accomplished in air sealed, closed chamber, under slight suction or pressure relative to ambient pressure. Gasification process occurring in general explained in this section.
 
 
Gasification is quite complex thermo chemical process. Splitting of the gasifier into strictly separate zones is not realistic, but nevertheless conceptually essential. Gasification stages occurs at the same time in different parts of gasifier.
 
In gasification, the combustion is carried out at sub-stoichiometric conditions with air to fuel ratio being 1.5:1 to 1.8:1. The product gas thus generated during the gasification process is combustible. This process is made possible in a device called gasifier with a limited supply of air.
Different stages of Gasification Process
 
A gasifier system basically comprises of a reactor, where the gas is generated and is followed by a cooling and cleaning train which cools and cleans the gas. The clean combustible gas known as producer gas is available for high grade heat in burners, power generation through reciprocating engines or gas turbines. In the reactor the biomass pieces after undergoing drying and devolatisation in the upper zones, leave behind the char.
 
The volatiles undergo oxidation in the combustion zone, with air being partially supplied by the surrounding nozzles and the remaining drawn from the open top. The product gases of oxidation further gets reduced by a bed of charcoal and yield a combustible gas having a calorific value of 4.5-5.0 MJ/Kg with an average composition of CO: 20 +/- 1%, CH4: 3 +/- 1%, H2: 20 +/- 1%, CO2: 12 +/- 1% and rest N2.
 
 
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